2019 32021 #3 (58)
The Theme:
Ethnocultural landscapes of the Northwest Pacific
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Bocharnikov V. N., Egidarev E. G.
Geoinformation mapping of indigenous peoples in the natural landscapes of the Far Eastern Federal District

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The article presents the results of calculations and geoinformation mapping of ethnic areas of indigenous small-numbered peoples in the territorial-administrative subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District (Far Eastern Federal District) of the Russian Federation. Data on the degree of preservation of large natural geosystems (wildlife) for physical and geographical areas and large landscape groups of the Russian Far East are presented. The importance of the state support of the traditional nature use of the CMNS in the conditions of biodiversity conservation and sustainable use of resources is discussed. It is proposed to consider large integral territories of wildlife as state-guaranteed opportunities for preserving the landscape diversity of the Russian Far East.
Bereznitsky S. V.
Sacred landscapes and ethno-cultural projections of the indigenous peoples of the Amur-Sakhalin region

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The sacred landscapes of the indigenous peoples of the Amur-Sakhalin region (Nanais, Negidals, Nivkhis, Orochis, Udeges, Uiltas, Ulchis, Evenks) have a mental impact on the process of the emergence of ethno-cultural projections. The phenomenon of "ethno-cultural projection" is understood as a mechanism for transferring the qualities of an external object, phenomenon to the subject. In this article, the external object refers to sacred landscapes, petroglyph complexes, ethnographic exhibits, and the role of the subject is played by representatives of these ethnic groups. Ethno-cultural projections are manifested in the context of the mythological perception of sacred landscapes, the reconstruction of collective memory as a result of the comprehension of ethnographic materials, various types of tangible and intangible cultural heritage.

Startsev A. F.
Etymology of Chinese and traditional toponyms of the Tungus-Manchu ethnic groups of Primorye

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Geographical names, especially hydronyms, oronyms and oikonyms, are steadily preserved in the memory of the aboriginal tribes who inhabited the Primorsky Territory in the past centuries of our era. These medieval ethnic groups include the Woji, Uji, Udakha and others tribes, which, according to the defnition of Russian orientalists, were the ancestors of the modern Udege, Nanai, Oroch and other aborigines of the region. Aboriginal tribes dispersedly settled across the territory of Primorye, starting from the borders of modern North Korea and down to the lower reaches of the Amur, including the entire coast of the Sea of Japan, the adjacent territories of Lake Khanka, the basins of the Sungari, Ussuri rivers and other places. The aborigines of the region, mastering these territories, called them taking into account the trade, natural and ethnic characteristics, and kept these place names in their memory for hundreds of years. With the change in the ethnic composition, the geographical names also changed, this became especially noticeable with the appearance of Chinese migrants in the region, who had a signifcant impact on the change of place names in the region, which was recorded on geographical maps and refected in the publications of domestic researchers. In the second half of the 70s of the twentieth century, it was decided to replace the Chinese place names in the region, while leaving the aboriginal place names. The etymology and folk semantics of aboriginal toponyms indicate that they refect the national characteristics of local ethnic groups and their deep knowledge of the occupied territory.
Krayushkina T. V.
The cultural landscape in the value system of the Eastern Slavs of Primorye (based on the material of prose genres of folklore of the 20th century)

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The article examines the realization of ideas about the cultural landscape based on the material of the fabulous and non-fabulous prose of the Eastern Slavs, recorded in the Primorsky Territory in the twentieth century. It is concluded that each of the studied genres has an individual set of ideas about the cultural landscape and the specifcs of their implementation, while in the aggregate the genres of folklore prose refect both mythological views, the traditional system of ideas about space, and everyday perception of the landscape, while the realities themselves sometimes endowed with opposite signs. The ideas about the cultural landscape realized in folklore prose appeal to a number of spiritual and value orientations of the Eastern Slavs.
Round Table  
Burlakov V. А., Vladimirova D. А., Garusova L. N., Dyshin А. V., Zhurbey E. V., Panachyova А. S., Rodionov V. А., Samojlenko P. Yu.
From Asia-Pacific to Indo-Pacific: Concept and Implementation

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 Historical Regional Studies  
Bikbov M. M., Galimova Yu. Sh.
From ophthalmological flying squads to eye care teams for the examination of the population

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The article is devoted to the history of the formation and development of ophthalmological fying squads under the command of the guardianship of the Empress Maria Alexandrovna for the blind, which initiated the work of the mobile eye care teams to the population of the country, in particular on the territory of the Ufa province. The article presents the reasons for the emergence of "fying squads" at the end of the XIX century, the ways of implementing the tasks assigned to mobile teams, their achievements and problems in their activities. The authors show the continuity of the development of mobile eye care on the example of the work of ophthalmological fying squads in the Ufa province, trachoma (trachomatous) detachments in the Bashkir ASSR in the 20-60s. of the XX century and ophthalmic units currently operating on the territory of Bashkortostan.
Podmaskin V. V.
Local history activities of the doctor Nikolai Vasilievich Kirilov in the Far East of Russia (late 19th – early 20th centuries)
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Scientific revival in a fairly large territory of the Russian Far East in the middle of the 19th - early 20th centuries, the high need for the use of its natural resources attracted the attention of many Russian researchers to study individual areas of the Oykumena from the point of view of their geographical, cultural, historical, economic, ethnographic characteristics. In this regard, the personality of the doctor N.V. Kirilov, a famous explorer of Eastern Siberia and the Far East. The researcher has published more than 90 articles on various issues of medicine and local history, collected scientifc collections for museums. He paid much attention to the study of life, everyday life, history of the Sakhalin Ainu. Writers, doctors, historians, characterizing Kirilov's personality, gave a high assessment of his initiative, selfess work, but paid little attention to the study of the local history direction of the doctor N.V. Kirilov. His contribution to the study of ethnography and anthropology of the indigenous peoples of the region has not become the subject of special research. The purpose of the article is an attempt to shed more light on some aspects of this issue.
Popov F. A.
The second session of the Non-Socialist Congress in Vladivostok (June 11–25, 1921): the main problems of Primorye after the anti-Bolshevik coup and discussions around them

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The article examines the history of convocation of the second (extraordinary) session of the Non-Socialist Congress on June 11-25, 1921, the course of its meetings and the main discussions. After the coup on May 26, 1921, the anti-Bolshevik Provisional Priamur Government came to power in Primorye, formed from members of the Council of Non-Socialistic Far-Eastern Organisation’s Congress, convened in March 1921. In an atmosphere of instability, the new government needed public support, which was to be provided by the Non-Socialist Congress, for which he was summoned to a new session. The right-wing, monarchist, anti-Bolshevik organizations of Vladivostok, Nikolsk-Ussuriisky and Harbin took part in the work of the Non-Social Congress. In the course of its work, discussions arose around the Congress renaming from "non-socialist" to "anti-communist", about the peasantry’s attitude to the new government, and also about the ataman Semyonov’s claims to the supreme power in Primorye. At the Congress, other problematic issues were also raised, for example, the restoration of the monarchy and the strategy of the anti-Bolshevik struggle. The behavior of the members of the Congress was distinguished by a high degree of aggression, there were fghts between the delegates. As a result, despite the polemics on various issues that took place, the Non-Social Congress expressed full support for the Provisional Priamur government.
Karaman V. N.
Vladivostok Fortress in the context of Russian military-defense policy in the Far East (1879–1923)

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The article is devoted to the Vladivostok Fortress. It is considered its role in the Russian military-defense policy in the Far East for the 1880s-1920s. The author gives a brief analysis of the impact of the Vladivostok Fortress from the idea of the emergence, construction and until its abolition in 1923 on the processes that determined the Russian Empire informed on the military-defensive policy in the Far East. The role of the Vladivostok Fortress is closely linked to the general colonization and development of the region. It is also considered issues of interaction between the general imperial dynamics of development with a regional one in the background with the large-scale construction of the largest object of the fortifcation structure, which must become military dominant in the region
Economy and Nature  
Naumov Yu. A.
On the features of surface water pollution in the Russian Far East

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The article is devoted to the study of the features of surface water pollution in each subject of the Russian Far East. The author focuses on the ecological state of rivers, lakes, reservoirs, an increase in the degree of pollution of the region from the ever-increasing chemicalization, from the rapidly developing China.
Social and Demographic Structures  
Lushnikova O. L.
Altay people, Tuvans, Khakass people: involvement in urban processes

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The purpose of this article is analysis of adaptation processes of Altay people, Tuvans and Khakass people in case of moving from countryside to urban areas. The empirical base is the data of sociological survey of rural migrants by ethnic groups of the republics of Altay, Tuva and Khakassia (n=960). The main migration reasons of Altay peoples are educational motivation, that’s why moving to the urban territory is temporary. Altay people are segregated rather than adapted in urban area. The urban environment is just beginning to form, and mainly by titular ethnic group. Khakass people are tending to assimilation (not adaptation) because of an absolute minority on the territory of the republic.
Political Relations and Management of the Region  
Budaev B. S.
The institutional parameter of the "strength" of regional branches of all-Russian parties in the Far Eastern Federal District

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Based on the analysis of data on the party distribution of powers of the executive and legislative bodies of power of the subjects of the Far Eastern Federal District, as well as representatives of the subjects in the Federal Assembly of Russia, the author assessed the "strength" of parties in the regions. The evaluation of the "strength" of the parties was carried out on the basis of the interval method proposed by Shugart M.S., and Carey J.M. The main institutional characteristics that distinguish certain cases have been identifed. The author made an attempt to assess the possible level of intensity of the ideological struggle on the eve of the elections of the deputies of the State Duma of Russia.
World System and International Regions  
Zhuravleva N. S.
The Republic of Korea in Africa: Soft Power as a Basic Tool of Foreign Policy

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This article examines the process of formation and development of relations between the Republic of Korea and African countries. The article analyzes the main tools and resources of Soft power used by the Republic of Korea to consolidate in the region and build up its infuence. This analysis examines the key current strategies being developed by the Korean government and researchers. There is an attempt to highlight the main distinctive features of South Korean Soft power strategies on the African continent.